Environmental                       Studies




Collar products

Argos terminals

GPS collars wildlife

GPS-GSM collars wildlife

Dog GPS collar

Hunde GPS Halsband


Link Manager


Tracking projects



Precision Farming


































































































































































































last update: December 4, 2002

Finnish Game and Fisheries
 Research Institute

and Environmental Studies

Worldwide first: GPS-GSM collar on a finnish wolf.

Remote GPS data transmission via mobile phone system direct into the office


The wolf was shot
 at October 19, 2002.







The investigations on the habitat use of wolves in Finland are a cooperative pilot project between Ilpo Kojola (Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Tavailkoski, Finland) and Environmental Studies. The investigation area is located in the eastern region of Finland (Fig. 1). Since wolves are hunted there illegally as well as legally, this area will not be localized in further detail.

Fig. 1:  Location of the investigation area in Finland (red symbol)

About 110 to 120 wolves live in Finland. Annually 12 of these animals may legally be hunted. The wolves live in small packs with a distinct social hierarchy. The pack size varies between 5 - 12 animals depending upon the season and the “founding history” of the pack. Every night, they cover an average distance of 15 to 20 km, in summer up to 40 km. Normally they cover distances in a “wolf trot”, an energy saving gait, but they can accelerate to 50 km/h over short stretches, for example, when they are hunting. Their prey consists of 70% moose, 25% wild reindeer, and 5% hares, rodents, and birds. 

Due to their high mobility, their spatial and temporal behaviour is difficult to investigate. Here satellite telemetry provides the optimal solution. In our team project we use the newest applied technology, GPS GSM collars (see products) developed by Vectronic Aerospace, Berlin. The wolves wear 750 g collar which determines and saves his respective locations via GPS (Global Positioning System). The form of data transmission is new: the locations of the animals are transmitted once daily directly from the GPS GSM collar via the mobile phone system (GSM system=Global System for Mobile Communication) integrated into the collar similar to an SMS sent by mobile phone. The data are sent to the researcher’s office where they can be transferred by computer to a digital map. 

On March 13, 2002 a 1½ year old male wolf was provided with a GPS-GSM collar (Fig. 2). 

Fig. 2: A  male wolf under anaestetic is outfitted with a GPS-Plus GSM collar

The GPS-GSM collar of the young wolf is programmed in such a way that it determines his location every 4 hours and sends the data as an SMS once daily. Until now the behaviour of wolves in Finland was investigated using “normal radio telemetry”, which is very time consuming. With the new system the movements of wild animals - with a choice of the number of positions registered per day - can be monitored over several years. This all can be done from the office in a time saving, evnvironmentally sound, and inexpensive manner.

The transmitted positions are arranged in chronological order and shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3:  Localization points of wolf 1 connected in chronological order,  
March 13 -  October 11,  2002


At the end of May the wolf left the area where he had stayed since March and moved 180 km further up north. He is still in this area. Now he travels together with a female wolf, which is equipped with a VHF-collar. This area is marked with a rectangle in Fig. 3 and enlarged  in the following picture (Fig 4.).

Fig. 4: Detail map of  the wolf positions until he has been shot at October 19, 2002

Where many positons are densely clustered the wolf probably downed prey and spent some time in the vicinity. Fig. 5 shows a young reindeer killed by wolves. In this environment the wolves often hunt domesticated reindeer. The reindeer herders get compensation from the government. GPS-GSM telemetry is helpful to find wolf kills.
Regardless of all agreements between the different groups of interest, the collared wolf was shot at 19 October 2002.



Fig. 5: Young reindeer killed by wolves





Statistics and results: Statistics from March 13 - October 19, 2002

collar statistics


fixings possible


fixings taken by GPS

1106 (=84%)

         of that:   2D


                         3D not validated


                         3D validated




fixings via SMS transmitted


fixing/SMS efficiency




wolf’s statistics


max. distance between 2 positions [km]


mean distance of all positions [km]


home range (MCP) [ha]





GPS-fixing time
Fig. 6 shows a histogram of the time, the GPS-receiver needed to find and record the location of the wolf from March to October 2002.  1106 positions have been evaluated. 65% of the locations have been determined in less than 60 seconds (mean: 74 seconds). 

Fig. 6: Histogram of the time the GPS-receiver needed to take a position (n=1106)


Wolf’s activity:

The activity of the wolf has been monitored by a two axis activity logger. By this, the acceleration of the collar will be estimated 6-8 times every second and the overall mean value has been stored every 5 minutes. Figure 7 shows the activity and temperature data of the wolf within the tracking periode. At least  39539 data sets have been stored on the collar.

Fig. 7: Activity data in x- and y direction (blue and green symbols) and temperature (red line) data taken by sensors in the GPS-GSM collar from March to October 2002 (n=39539 data sets each)

Figure 8 shows a cut of figure 7, the wolf’s activity from the September 8 to 13. The red line shows the progress of the daily temperature  with maximum at midday and minimum at night. The wolf’s activity shows a strict pattern:  high activity at night and lower activity at day.

Fig. 8: Activity of the wolf in x (blue symbols) and y-axis (green symbols) and ambient air temperature (red line), from September 8-13 2002

If the mean daily activity is evaluated from the 39539 datasets  (figure 9), the lowest activity occured between 6.00 and 14.00. Activity increased from 14.00 to 20.00 and stayed high during the night.

Fig. 9: Mean daily activity of the collared wolf from March to October 2002 (n=39539 values)